The Role of Institutions and Instrument Mechanisms in Natural Resource Management: Study of Bhitarkanika Mangrove Wetland, India
Management of mangrove wetland ecosystem has been getting a focal point as most of these ecosystems in South Asia have been degrading day by day. The anthropogenic pressures like poverty and unavailability of livelihood alternatives are the vital causes for the degradation of these fragile ecosystems. Thus conservation and sustainable management strategies are the most vital topics to be discussed. This paper finds the role of different institutions for its conservation and management. Investment in recreational services like ecotourism, provision of alternative livelihoods and creating other infrastructure could lessen the dependency on these ecosystems through spread effects. This paper discusses the economic instruments, institutions and mechanism that have significant influence on the conservation policy of mangroves. The focus group discussion held at an adjacent village of Bhitarkanika mangrove ecosystem confirms that adequate provision of livelihood option, property rights to the households over their land where their house stands and sustainable harvest rights of the byproducts and products of the mangroves to the local people could make the conservation option more feasible. But the feasibility to operationalise their suggestions would require a new institutional framework for mangrove management. Understanding the necessity of conservation and development of local economy, inducing direct cooperation between government/ national park authority and the households are the key institutions for sustainable conservation and management attempt.
Keywords: Mangrove Ecosystem, Social and Economic Institutions, Instrument Mechanisms
Doctoral Scholar, Department of Humanities and Social Science, Indian Institute of Technology
My thesis is entitled on “Economic Valuation of Mangrove Wetlands: Study of Bhitarkanika, Orissa, India”. Prior to my present assignment, I worked as a Resource Person in Economics at Orissa School of Mining and Engineering, a constituent college of Biju Patnaik University of Technology, Orissa, India. I used to teach in Project Appraisal Techniques, Valuation of Financial Investment.
My areas of interest are on Environmental Economics, Ecological Economics, Environment and Development Trade off, Modelling valuation techniques of natural resource.
Dr. V Upadhyay
Professor of Economics, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi